Tall Tartan Tells How I Teach English

There is a lockdown. Schools have closed for all except the children of keyworkers, with a rota of teachers. Parents are homeschooling their children.

The pupils, who I used to teach face-to-face, have moved over to online tuition. I have been learning how to use Zoom, and how to share resources using screenshare (along with everybody else!).

My feeling now is that the information I share in this post about how to teach English is even more important now, in the current climate. You will become more aware of just how MUCH there is to teaching English – and that’s just up to Year 6 (age 11) level – never mind GCSE or A level (which is not my area of expertise).

To give you some sort of context, in case you haven’t read my blog posts before, I write about my freelance business. I have been proofreading and tutoring  since I left classroom teaching 4 years ago. This is the third post I have written about teaching or tutoring. Here I write about my experiences of tuition generally. And here about how I teach Maths.

For the last four months my time has been spent following the CIEP (Chartered Institute of Editing and Proofreading) Proofreading Mentoring course, providing primary tuition, and editing a local monthly magazine. So the writing of this post has slipped further down my list each month. Now the Coronavirus pandemic is happening. It’s time to take stock.

So read further to find out how I teach English.

English teaching

When I teach English to primary school children, I could be covering anything up to six areas of skills. They are:

  • reading decoding and comprehension
  • spelling
  • punctuation
  • grammar
  • handwriting
  • writing composition

Reading

The key skill in teaching English is the teaching of reading. Without efficient reading skills, children can’t access other areas of the curriculum.

By the time children leave primary school, they should be able to read and understand what they are reading. There are those children (below average) who can decode (break down) the sounds in words to help them recognise and pronounce them.

More able children can read challenging texts fluently. When I taught in the classroom, it was a pleasure to hear a child read with expression, or have confidence performing with drama. It was equally pleasing to see the progress a child made who was struggling with phonics. Those lightbulb moments are priceless.

It is intriguing to teach more able readers how to infer and deduce (read ‘between the lines’) by increasing their vocabulary, by prompting them to understand what that challenging vocabulary means,  by leading them to dig deeper into the text.

It is encouraging to watch reluctant readers laugh at the stories spun by authors such as David Walliams and Liz Pichon (Tom Gates). They want to read on … But it is also frustrating when they ignore an unfamiliar word, hoping it will just become invisible. I teach them to become inquisitive enough to want to find out why the author chose that word, investigating how that word adds to the story.

SPaG

Three elements of English – Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar – have been turned into a variety of acronyms by the Department for Education over the years: their incarnations have been SPaG, GPS, … These elements were not taught well in the 1980s or 90s, so subsequent teachers didn’t feel confident teaching them at school. Then in the 2010s, Michael Gove introduced intensive assessment of SPaG at the end of Key Stage 2 (Year 6), which resulted in children being taught far more about grammar than they need to know at that age.

Let’s begin with Spelling –

Spelling

I find that children generally fall into two camps: either they can spell, or they can’t. Some children really worry about spelling. Some don’t know what the fuss is about – spelling isn’t important to them. Or there are those who are proud because correct spelling comes easily to them – they learnt the weekly spellings with 10/10.

When tutoring my pupils, I ask them to look at the spelling of a word they have written. Does it look right?

Spelling can be taught in fun ways using games, e.g. Scrabble and wordsearch, to name just two.

Children with dyslexic tendencies are a different discussion. Thankfully, now they get more recognition and help than in the past.

Punctuation

It was so frustrating when, in upper primary, children forgot to use capital letters and full stops to begin and end a sentence. Ironically, they could use more advanced forms of punctuation, but forgot the skills taught in Year 1. By Year 2 (7-year-old) children are taught to add to their knowledge of punctuation by using a question mark or exclamation mark. By Year 5 (9-year-old) children are taught to use a wide range of punctation, including semicolons (an elaborate comma) and colons (introduces further information).

When I wrote their ideas on the whiteboard or Learning Wall during Guided Writing, pupils were keen to point out punctuation errors (deliberate mistakes made by me) but they weren’t as observant in their own writing. Children had to be retaught to punctuate as they wrote, rather than put the punctuation in afterwards.

Which is why writers perhaps can’t see the wood for the trees, and need a trained editor and/or proofreader to find errors.

Grammar

Here are some terms you may not have come across before. They are assessed in the SPaG SATs (Standard Assessment Tests) for Year 6 (aged 11) at the end of Key Stage 2.

Let’s try some … Can you identify the following? What is an adjective, adverb, fronted adverbial, modal verb, conjunction, subordinate clause, relative clause, and finally, active and passive voice? (The answers are below if you are curious.)

adjective: describes the noun

adverb: describes the verb (sometimes end with ‘ly’)

fronted adverbials: an adverb which starts a sentence pausing with a comma, e.g. ‘In the far distance, …’

modal verbs: verbs which show possibility or likelihood

conjunctions: used to be called connectives – links two clauses with ‘and’, ‘but, ‘or’, etc.

subordinate clause: a clause which depends on the main clause to make sense

relative clause: a subordinate clause introduced by a relative pronoun, e.g. who, which, whose

active voice: the subject of the sentence is doing or being, e.g. The cooks burned the apple pie.

passive voice: the subject is being acted on by the object, e.g. The apple pie was burned by the cooks.

However, this is not the place for a debate about which and why grammar rules should be taught to 7 – 11 year olds.

Right, moving straight on to something a little less controversial …

Handwriting

According to the National Curriculum, children should be joining their handwriting from Year 2.

I get much satisfaction from showing children how to form their letters correctly. Tall letters have ascenders (lines going up, e.g. b, d, h, k, l, t) and others have descenders (lines going down, e.g. g, j, p, q, y). Elegant ‘f’ should have both.

Each school usually has their own handwriting policy. Some schools advocate teaching cursive handwriting from EYFS Reception (Early Years Foundation Stage). That’s fine if the child demonstrates good fine motor control with the pencil, but I’m not convinced. Then again, I never taught in an EYFS classroom. (I was too tall to get my legs under the tiddly tables!)

Another tip I offer is to dot the i’s and cross the t’s after the whole word is written, rather than lift the pencil/pen and stop the flow of the word to finish those letters. Try it with the word ‘little’.

Neatly joined handwriting has its place, and does look absolutely exquisite in the right setting. But, the quality of the handwriting should be appropriate to the audience. For a quick visit to the shops with a list just for one’s own viewing, a scribble is sufficient. On the other hand, perfecting the greeting on a card to granny is the opportunity to be proud of slowly-joined, cursive script.

An example of a student handwriting sheet which encourages the use of ascenders and descenders.

Writing composition

There is nothing more thrilling than to have a child show their learning by incorporating features of writing you have taught into an unaided composition.

Whether the genre is myths, legends, historical, comedy or horror, their ability to show understanding of the features of that genre is a mark of their progress and success as writers.

Their skills at writing are enhanced if they are reading a wide variety of genres. If they can also build believable characters, with imaginative speech which moves the story on, and they can talk directly to the reader, their writing becomes a sheer joy to read.

By Year 6, most children can include a wide range of devices in their writing: plot structure; description of setting and characters using vivid adjectives and adverbs, similes and metaphors; action between characters; speech (using the rules of speech punctuation); and punctuation. Even showing contrast of types and lengths of sentences, e.g. ‘long/short/long’ or ‘short/long/short’ for dramatic effect.

The hardest concept for some children to grasp is how to lay out paragraphs. They are taught to start a new idea on a new line with a small indent. Each paragraph should have a new idea. One example of a model to help understanding is to show children fiction authors’ work where paragraphs have been jumbled. The task is to rearrange them so that the meaning of the overall text makes sense.

So, all these elements are taught in a module lasting several weeks over a half term, building up their skills, until the children get a chance to show that they can apply their learning.

At the end of an hour’s composition, the children are given the opportunity to read their work back to themselves. In the classroom, they would whisper aloud. So they can hear it. Hearing it spoken is a tip for the checking of any errors. Editors and proofreaders do it as a proven strategy!

All the best

To finish, you will find some helpful websites below about the teaching of primary English. They will be especially useful if you are homeschooling.

All the best in these strange times.

 

 

Website resources on teaching primary English:

Tall Tartan Tells How I Teach Maths

I’ve said it before, and I’ll say it again … one of the things I love about my freelance business is the variety. As well as editing, I particularly enjoy teaching primary school pupils. Maths is one of the subjects I am asked to boost in tutoring. Don’t worry, nothing as complicated as BitmoAnnie is doing above!

This blog post follows on from my gemeral blog post  About Tutoring. In this post, I continue to share tips from the 30 years I spent in the classroom teaching 5 – 11 year olds.

Who is this blog post for?

Proofreaders are asked to proofread not only educational reading and writing texts for publishers, but also materials in Maths and Science, the other core subjects. With the latter subjects, the ability to fact-check that answer books are correct, and marking schemes match, is a definite advantage and sought after skill.

This post is also for  ex-teacher freelancers who are considering adding tutoring to their portfolio of jobs. Many of the newbie editing freelancers I have come across are already offering tuition. Indeed, it’s a no-brainer to apply our finely-honed skills to running a freelance tuition business, over which we have sole control.

Maths lesson

Now here I describe how I tutor an hour’s Maths lesson. I enjoy using particular resources, described below, to encourage engagement and learning.

This Maths lesson is aimed at an average 8-year old in Year 4. It is divided into three parts: mental warm-up, written practice and reinforcement, finishing with a fun game to wind up the hour.

Pre-requisites for this lesson:

  • Mental number bonds to 20.
  • Times tables knowledge of x2, x5, x10, x3, x4, x6, x8 (according to the National Curriculum 2014, children should know all times tables by Year 5). Notice I have listed them in the order they are taught from Year 1.
  • Some division tables knowledge of ÷2, ÷5, ÷10, ÷3, ÷4.

Resources for games:

  • Wrap-ups (I’ll come to these in a moment)
  • dice
  • playing cards
  • iPad or Android tablet device

Mental starter (10 minutes)

Use mental maths strategies to add quickly and efficiently. The purpose of this is to settle into a focused frame of mind, and warm up the little grey cells. So, a speedy game of Snap with playing cards for hand/eye agility and coordination is a thrill.

Or throw two dice and add, or multiply, with speed. Extending this, throw three dice and add by finding the largest number first; or find two numbers which make ten; or near doubles.

My favourite starter is the Wrap-up.

Wrap-ups are available as all four operations (+ – x ÷) as well as fractions. The photo shows the times tables version of a Wrap-up.

Each key has a separate times table, with answers mixed up on the back, for self-checking. A string is wound matching the question to the answer, while saying the question out loud. For example, 4 x 3. The child winds the string around, matching the question to the answer.

I vary the vocabulary used to ask the question: 4 lots of 3; 4 sets of 3, 4 groups of 3, 4 times 3, 4 multiplied by 3.

Rotating the string round and round, at the same time as vocalising the question, is known as the VAK approach – visual, auditory, kinaesthetic. The child uses the strategy they feel best suits their learning. It is especially appropriate for children who can’t keep still as they learn. (One of my tutee clients has ADHD.) Wrap-ups are available from this website.

Main session (30 minutes)

Written short multiplication method: carry out multiplication calculations using the following as an example, 854 x 4.

Vocabulary

It is vital to use the correct vocabulary when describing a strategy. Children tend to use the word ‘sum’ to describe any operation involving numbers! ‘Sum’ describes addition only – it means ‘total’. The answer to a multiplication question is the ‘product’. So, we could re-write the above question as: “What is the product of 854 and 4?” (This extends the question level to Year 5, as the word ‘and’ confuses the concept; a common error is for children to read the question as addition.)

Method

On squared paper, set out the 3-digit number, 854, (with one digit in one square) in the column values HTU, drawing two horizontal lines underneath as the place to write the answer. It astonishes children that the = sign means the same as those longer lines in a written strategy.

It’s hard to describe the method here, but I’ll have a go. Set out x4 underneath with the 4 in the Units or Ones column. Multiply 4 by the 4 Ones, making 16. Write 6 Ones in the space for the Ones answer, and ‘carry’ the 1 Ten into the Tens column. Multiply 4 by the 5 Tens. This equals 20, then add on the carried Ten to make 21 Tens. One Ten stays in the Tens column, and ‘carry’ the 20 Tens into the next column as 2 Hundreds. Multiply 4 by the 8 Hundreds to make 32 Hundreds, then add the carried 2 to make 34 Hundreds. The completed answer is 3,416.

Linking the calculation to a real-life problem gives the answer more context:  “If four people each made £854 in one month, how much was earned altogether?”

Mastery

If children can explain how they got their answer using the correct terminology, then it shows they have a secure concept of the method.

A common error is to forget to add on the carried digits, so I reinforce this aspect repeatedly. More able mathematicians can check the answer by using the inverse operation, division. Skills can be extended by multiplying ThHTU by a single digit.

One of the most common parental comments is that methods have changed since they were at school. So they feel it’s hard for them to help their children. Ask your child’s teacher for clarification. Some schools produce a handy leaflet for parents with how the Maths methods are taught.

Lesson plenary (10 minutes)

My pupils love using a Maths app on my Android tablet to round up the session and relax. These include Card Match, Solitaire (which I knew as Patience when I was young), and Countdown. They often beat me, too.

Why I tutor … part 2

Having been a classroom teacher, with many conflicting demands on time, you find that, simply, there are not enough hours in the day to spend quality 1-1 time with each child. Improving reading skills is probably the highest priority.

I find doing private tuition much more rewarding: I can choose the resources I want to use; planning for one child takes so much less time than for a class; children feel more relaxed to ask questions when there are just two of you. If you’re thinking about tutoring … what are you waiting for?

Feedback

Finally … positive feedback … makes it all worth it. Here is a comment from the parents of a 6 year old boy: “Annie is a fun, calm, creative and experienced tutor who immediately put my son at ease. He looks forward to her lessons and loves her ideas and games. We would definitely recommend her.” Chuffed!

Read on to the end to find links to Primary Maths websites I have found useful for resources. Let me know if you are a tutor and share resources you find useful.

 

 

 Kindly proofread by Lisa de Caux, SfEP Intermediate Level Member, https://www.ldceditorial.co.uk

 

Useful Primary Maths website resources:

  • https://www.ncetm.org.uk/resources/51240 – this podcast is one of a number of excellent resources from the National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Maths (NCETM) which supports Maths across all school and college phases.
  • https://whiterosemaths.com/ – This month White Rose Maths are running #Barvember. This to encourage everyone to use the bar model. They believe that the Bar Model is a useful tool for helping children visualise and then solve maths problems. Even some of the most complex problems can be seen much easier when represented visually.

Teacher bloggers

  • www.mrspteach.com/ – primary teacher and Deputy Head, Jo Payne. Pearson Teaching Awards winner for use of IT.
  • www.teachertoolkit.co.uk/blog – known as Ross Morrison McGill, the most followed secondary teacher on social media and top UK blogger of 2018.

Tall Tartan Tells About Tutoring

One of the things I love about running my freelance business is the variety in my portfolio. In the mornings I do proofreading and editing. In the afternoons I tutor primary school pupils.

So, for the SfEP-ers reading this, how does this blog post relate to proofreading and publishing? Well, I have been making plans: this is the start of my new blog series on education, teaching, learning, and tuition.

It is aimed at educationalists. It is also for freelancers (editors, tutors, etc), and those who are recovering teachers and are thinking of adding tutoring to their portfolio. You could also be a parent wondering whether their child needs a tutor.

Specialism networking

One of my takeaways from the Society for Editors and Proofreaders (SfEP) mini conference in Newcastle (May 2019) was Denise Cowle encouraging networking. Going to SfEP local group meetings and events if you feel confident enough, but also meeting editors with your specialism.

There are a variety of specialist niches in the SfEP community (which you can find by going into forum settings and clicking on the ones in which you have an interest).

I must say I do get excited when I meet a proofreader who was a teacher, or with a publishing background, who freelances for educational publishers. We have education in common.

In fact, I have connected with former teachers on LinkedIn where we share our experiences.

How to keep up-to-date?

I was a bit doubtful about how to keep up-to-date with current strategies in primary education. Here’s why.

The only access I would have to educational CPD (Continuing Professional Development) networking is if I was in the classroom. On the payroll.

Obviously, to offer tuition effectively, I need to keep up with developments in the world of curriculum changes. I need to match what is being delivered in primary schools, so that I can back up what is being taught in the classroom.

I realised, after doing some joining-up thinking, that reading blogs about education, written by teachers, would be an efficient way of keeping current. After all, they are sharing examples of best practice.

Education blogs

Researching for this blog it dawned on me that I have read an amazing plethora of blog posts. They are written by fellow editors full of suggestions about how to edit and proofread, how to market content, and how to write. But I hadn’t actually read any blogs about education. It never occurred to me that there WERE blogs about teaching. Lightbulb moment!

So I investigated Mr Google and found many blog writers. Teachers have written about education, teaching and learning, assessment, and resources. But most importantly, to me, how teachers are coping with trends in education and demands from the Department for Education, and the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED). But you’ll have to wait until the end to see the links for further reading … See what I did there 😉

How I got into tutoring

So back to the beginning. Three years ago, I developed a heart condition and was on sick leave from the classroom. It was obviously a relief to be away from the increasing mound of paperwork (more and more planning, deeper marking, and continuous assessment).

But. I did miss the interaction with the children. After a year of training in proofreading (online) and setting up my business website, my husband saw an advert in the window of the local newsagents.

‘Tutor required for girl in Year 4. Needs boost in Maths.’ He persuaded me that Y4 (8/9 years old) was an age I had much experience with. I should phone the number.

I had mixed feelings. No, to be truthful, actually I was terrified. I had been out of the classroom for about a year. Even after the six week summer break, many colleagues share how nervous they are to go back into the classroom – will I remember how to teach?! Anyway, I met her family and prepared the first lesson. To say I was nervous is an understatement.

I shouldn’t have worried – the hour flew by. She had fun. I had fun. She learnt. I learnt. We talked about her strengths and weaknesses in Maths, and that over the next few weeks she would tell me what she had done in school that she wanted to practise. I would reinforce concepts sent as  homework by the school. Her self-esteem and confidence grew quickly which, frankly, was my main aim. I was pleased to be making a difference.

Why blog about tutoring?

So, in this blog series on education and tuition, I want to share some tips from my 30 years in the classroom teaching 7–11 year olds.

Naturally, there is debate regarding tuition. Why tutor children? When should children be tutored, if at all? In theory, the input of the teachers and parents should be enough …

To date, I have been tutoring both privately and through an agency for three years. Aware of a variety of reasons for parents wanting a tutor for their child, I simply help where there is a need. Because I can. I have the time and expertise (unlike the parents).

When I was a class teacher at parents’ evenings, it became more common in the last five years for parents to ask: “Does my child need a tutor?”

So what follows are the most common tuition requests from parents:

  • to boost those children who are struggling to keep up in the classroom; those who are below average, perhaps with special educational needs, e.g. dyslexia, ADHD, etc.
  • to support parents who are too busy to help.
  • to support parents who complain that methods have changed since they were at school. For example, they don’t understand the homework (Maths methods, grammar rules …)
  • to support with the 11+ or Common Entrance Exams.

Why I tutor

At the time of writing, we are approaching the end of another busy academic year for me (July 2019). I have tutored 1-1 for five afternoons a week since last September, with four tutees, ranging in age from six to ten, in their homes. The only days I don’t tutor are Friday and Sunday.

My students all work at a level below average and need a boost in confidence. This is my preferred focus – raising self-esteem.

By cultivating a growth mindset I make progress visible. In reality a lot of us could do with a boost and some positive thinking.

Some favourite phrases I use during tuition to make the experience positive:

  • IMPOSSIBLE becomes I’M POSSIBLE
  • Don’t stop until you’re proud
  • Make progress with every mistake. Mistakes mean I learn better
  • FAIL = First Attempt In Learning
  • Don’t quit = Do It

Specialism for publishers

When you begin training as a proofreader or copy-editor, if you have come from a career outside publishing, it is advised that you offer your former career as a specialism, as a ‘way in’. As is obvious by now, teaching is a specialism I offer to educationaI publishers. I can describe ability levels and different learning styles; am open to new pedagogies; and I adapt to whatever the government of the day *throws* at us. My experience with educational materials makes me ideal to proofread them.

I have cold-emailed educational publishers over the last year and  been added to the freelance banks of three. Which is good, I’m told. It will be interesting to receive work.

How to get tuition work

Let me end with the link to my profile with the Tutorful agency. This is how new parents can message me and lessons are arranged on our mutual dashboards. There are, of course, other agencies available.

You can also find the link on the Tuition page of my website.

To finish, the best tuition feedback I have had was from the parents of a 10-year-old boy with ADHD and dyslexia: “I feel so much cleverer when Annie has been.”

 

 

Thank you to Lisa De Caux (SfEP Intermediate Member) for proofreading.

P.S. Here are those UK blogs I mentioned. As I write more about education and learning, teaching and tuition, I will mention specific subject bloggers.